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Mountaineer Annual, 1960-69
* Lowell Skoog has a copy of each article marked with an asterisk.

Mountaineer Annual, 1960

The theme of this annual seems to be "things to do other than mountain climbing." It includes articles on foldboating, caving, skiing, sailing, snowshoeing, diving, and climbing on university buildings and "blob" summits (in an article called "Things to Climb When Mountains Aren't Worth It" by Harvey Manning.)

p. 19, Meulemans, John, "Skis on Untracked Slopes" *

The article appeals to a packed-slope skier yearning to try ski touring. It provides a brief how-to and why-to, discussing skis, bindings, climbers, rucksack items, party requirements, techniques and attitude. It suggests tours sponsored by the Mountaineer Ski Tours committee as a good way to start. The author describes the experience of ski touring as further motivation to the reader. Finally, the article suggests several tours.

Day Tours:

Longer Trips: Spring Trips:

Mt Baker, Mt St Helens, Steamboat Prow, Mt Daniel, Monte Cristo area, Cascade Pass area.

p. 33, Prater, Gene, "On Snowshoes and Skis-Near Ingalls Creek"*

Photo of skier and snowshoer on a thinly covered trail traversing a brushy hillside.

p. 35, Degenhardt, Stella, "Mazama Ridge, Mt Rainier, Tatoosh Range in Background" *

Fine photo of skiers on level, wind-rippled snow with Pinnacle-Castle Peaks in the background.

p. 36, Degenhardt, Stella, "Boston Glacier Crevasse, Cascade Pass Area" *

Fine photo of roped skiers exploring the floor of a large crevasse adorned with wind rolls and icicles.

p. 102, "Administration and Committee Reports"

This quote: "The Ski Tours Committee scheduled thirteen ski tours and six ski climbs, with an average attendance of 15 per trip. However all of the ski climbs but those to Camp Muir and Mt St Helens were cancelled because of lack of sign up."

Mountaineer Annual, 1961

p. 41, Faure, Eugene, "Our Charter Members--Then and Now" *

This article profiles charter Mountaineers members still living in 1961. Of the 151 charter members listed in 1907, 20 are profiled here. Of interest is the profile of Milnor Roberts, which includes: "Milnor Roberts, for many years Dean of the College of Mines at the University of Washington, was born in New York in 1877." He says,
"My time spent with The Mountaineers was limited by the fact that their trips were made during the summer and other vacation periods when I was engaged in mine field work. The ski trips in winter with small groups were great fun. In 1909, with my sister Milnora and a small group including Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Seymour of Tacoma, we spent a week at Longmire skiing on the mountain. One evening while we were celebrating with dancing and stunts, two of us elevated the mayor (of Tacoma) to our shoulders and paraded him around the lobby to the plaudits of the guests. As we passed the wide front doors, it just happened to open, so we marched through it and out to the front steps where we dumped his honor head first into a six foot snow bank."

p. 37, Roberts, Milnor, photos

Photos of this charter Mountaineers member, accompanying the Eugene Faure article. One photo, taken in 1909 shows Dean Roberts, dressed in a bowler hat, suit and tie, striding across the snowy UW campus on cross country skis.

p. 118, "Administrative and Committee Reports"

Quote: "The Ski Tours Committee conducted eight ski tours, four others having been cancelled due to lack of snow. There were no ski climbs of major peaks this past season." Also: "In April 1960, the Northern Pacific Railroad removed its trains No. 5 and No. 6, making Meany Ski Lodge accessible only over three miles of snow." The hut committee plans to lease a snowcat to tow skiers and supplies over this distance.

Mountaineer Annual, 1962

p. 33, Lynn, Isabelle, "Year 'Round in the Mountains"

Describes life at the Double K Mountain Ranch, built by Kay Kershaw in 1945-46, at 3400 feet on the eastern slope of the Cascades at Goose Prairie. Mentions that some skiing and snowshoeing was done in the area in winter.

p. 113, Administration and Committee Reports, Property Division

The Meany Ski Hut snowcat operation proved so successful that the Board of Trustees approved the purchase of the snowcat, initially leased.

Mountaineer Annual, 1963

This annual is almost a special ski issue. Many fine reminiscences of the early years of Mountaineers skiing.

p. 9, Bauer, Wolf, "Telemarks, Sitzmarks, and Other Early Impressions" *

A funny, personal look back at skiing in the 1920's and 30's. Describes the author's first skiing experiences in 1919 as a boy in the Bavarian Alps and his emigration to Seattle in 1925. Includes a story of his first outing to Stampede Pass with skis, when a street car conductor in Seattle informed him that "the System was not in the lumber-hauling business, and that whatever it was that I was carrying did not come under 'personal and reasonable luggage.'" Describes early slalom racing and the Patrol Race, including surreptitious handicapping of racers' packs using rocks and bricks. The author recounts the first Silver Skis race, won by Don Fraser, in which sixty-six racers started simultaneously from Camp Muir, and in which the author, while leading, survived a somersault at nearly sixty miles per hour, loosing goggles, both poles, and breaking a ski, but still finishing fifth.

p. 18, Ball, Fred, "Mountaineer Skiing, 1927-1933" *

The author came to Seattle in November 1927 after having skied casually in the Salt Lake City area. He describes the equipment of the time in some detail. He writes that in 1929, "Suddenly, the Club seemed to become trophy or competition minded." After a brief discussion of early cross-country and downhill races, he turns to the Patrol Race, first run in March, 1930. He mentions that the route from Snoqualmie Lodge to Meany Ski Hut was pioneered in February 1928 and was later well marked. Skiers under twenty years of age were not eligible to race, and often broke trail.

The author documents every Patrol Race through 1941, the last year the event was run. In 1940 the open race was won by the Washington Alpine Club. He writes that the route followed by the race became very popular around this time. The article recounts epics and misadventures by the author and others along this route.

p. 26, Shorrock, Paul, "Some Recollections of My Early Days in Skiing" *

"In the old days we did not learn to ski, we just put on skis and started out," writes the author about his early skiing, mostly in the Snoqualmie area. He describes his first day on skis on Washington's Birthday, 1925, when he entered the Harper Novice Cup Race and won it, the only ski trophy he ever won. He describes the trip to Snoqualmie Lodge by train and trail and mentions that the pass was not kept open in winter in those days. He writes that Rudy Amsler (born in Switzerland) and Lars Lovseth (from Norway) were among the better club skiers in the earliest days. He describes his first winter outing to Paradise in 1921-22, including the trek from Seattle by boat, train and foot. More than one hundred people attended this outing, staying in the Paradise Inn by special arrangement. He writes that Andy Anderson and Norval Grigg were the first to complete the route of the Snoqualmie-to-Martin Patrol Race in one day. They later donated the race trophy. He describes misadventures along this route, including getting lost, missing trains, and being thrown off of trains.

p. 30, Wilson, Art, "Golden Days" *

In 1930, the author went to watch a jumping meet on the Seattle Ski Club hill at Beaver Lake (above Snoqualmie summit). He decided to take up the sport and the next week oufitted himself at Aaland Brothers for $20. He describes skiing in Silver Peak basin and other areas near Snoqualmie Lodge and taking an interest in competition. He mentions defeating Hans-Otto Giese, who had been winning Mountaineer cross-country races for several years, in two consecutive seasons. In those days the Seattle Ski Club was almost entirely Scandinavians. Attending one of their Class B races, he overheard "much merriment about the audacious Mountaineer who thought he could compete against the Scandinavians. That was all I needed to spur me on to a first place-to show those Svenskas that the Mountaineers also ran." He describes the first Silver Skis race in 1934, in which he held back at the start to let the crowd clear. The starter called out, "If you are going to be in this race, you'd better start now." He did, coming in 15th. He also describes the foggy Silver Skis race of 1940, when Sigurd Hall, a Mountaineer born in Norway, crashed into the rocks and died. That was the last of the Seattle P-I sponsored Silver Skis races, according to the author.

p. 33, Dickert, O. Phillip, "Powder Snow Skiing near Snoqualmie Lodge" *

A fine photo of five skiers, crouched and open-stanced, making parallel turns in a glade of trees. Accompanies the Art Wilson article.

p. 34, "Finish Line, 1936 Silver Skis" *

Another fine photograph of the crowd and a skier passing through the finish gate, with the Tatoosh Range in the background. Accompanies the Art Wilson article.

p. 35, Hayes, Robert H., "Mountaineer Ski Team, 1936" *

The boys in their natty sweaters in front of Mt Shuksan. The skiers' names are not captioned (instead, see 1936 Annual). Accompanies the Art Wilson article.

p. 36, Wilson, Art, "Skiing in Silver Basin"

Photo of skiers climbing the basin along a well beaten trail. Accompanies the Art Wilson article.

p. 37, Degenhardt, Stella, "Boards Without Hordes" *

Suggestions for ski touring. Most of the article describes local destinations:

Goat Rocks - Recommended as a Thanksgiving tour when the passes are bare. Approach from Chambers Lake to Snow Grass Flat. Hal Williams has skied deep powder in the Goat Rocks at Christmas time.

Mt Baker - John Klos describes a trip popular in the 1940s, from Austin Pass to Coleman Pinnacle, returning via Herman Saddle. Cal Magnusson recommends the south flank of Mt Baker as an alternative to the more usual Kulshan Cabin route.

Summerland - The author recommends this as a practical February destination, assuming the road is plowed to the White River Ranger station. She recommends skiing areas around Panhandle Gap and Meany Crest.

Enchantment Lakes - Recommended for four to six-day tours in spring, approaching from Icicle Creek via Snow Creek. The author suggests skiing on Little Annapurna, north of Prusik Pass and down into Ingalls Creek. She describes Colchuck Lake as an alternative return route and also mentions skiing 7200 vertical feet from Cannon Mtn to Icicle Creek via Coney Lake and Rat Creek.

Glacier Basin (Monte Cristo) - A group of skiers including Gary Rose skied this area one Memorial Day, starting from the Mountain Loop highway.

Eldorado Peak - Recommended in April by Joseph Firey, using the now standard approach from the Cascade River road via Eldorado Creek.

The author also describes areas outside Washington for ski touring, including the Wallowa Mountains of Oregon, and the Mt Robson area and Little Yoho valley in the Canadian Rockies.

p. 84, Magnussion, Cal, "North Pickets Climbers' Outing"

In "Climbing Notes", an account of the 1962 Climbers' Outing led by the author. There were two groups, one of eight that stayed two weeks, another of four that stayed one week. The group did some new climbing and suffered through poor weather. An interesting fact is that they made use of an air drop by pilot Bill Fairchild of Port Angeles. They dropped 500 pounds of supplies on the Challenger Glacier a few days before starting their trip.

Mountaineer Annual, 1964

This annual describes the North Cascades Conservation Council proposal to establish a North Cascades National Park. The area of the proposed park received considerable coverage. This annual also has a strong historical theme.

p. 10, Fries, Mary, "Summer Outing in the Wilderness Alps of Stehekin"

The 1963 Outing was staged out of Stehekin from July 20-August 11. Parties spent a week in the Washington Pass area and two weeks in Park Creek, climbing many local summits. "Regret at leaving Washington Pass was intensified by the thought of this scenic spot soon being invaded by bulldozers for construction of the new road." Twelve climbers completed the Ptarmigan Traverse to Bachelor Creek. The article includes some sketches by Ramona Hammerly, who was in the traverse party.

p. 27, Coleman, Winifred, "Exploratory Expeditions Through the North Cascades"

Describes early expeditions by Alexander Ross (1814), Henry H. Pierce (1882), and George B. Backus (1883), all Army officers, into the North Cascades.

p. 41, Chiswell, H.C., "Historical Sketch--Mt Baker National Forest"

"Not intended to be a complete work," this short historical sketch describes many early characters in the North Cascades, including John McMillan, Jack Rowley, Tommy Rowland, George Holmes, George Logan, Joe Morovits, and C.C. McGuire.

p. 88, Hawkins, Donna, "Spanish Camp High Country" *

A description of the character of this part of the Pasayten, its history of mining and grazing, and some of the horse packers who frequent the area. Most interesting is a description of two trips taken on skis to Spanish Camp by Charles and Marion Hessey in early April (the year is not given). The article includes a short account by Hessey (personal communication?) describing their approach and exit routes and some of the highlights of their trips.

p. 99, North Cascades Conservation Council, "1963 North Cascades National Park Proposal"

Contains this quote by Weldon Heald from his 1949 book, "The Cascades":
"[The area] is packed solidly with hundreds of square miles of soaring peaks massed together in lines, groups, and knots. They rise steeply thousands of feet from narrow valleys clothed in a jungle-like growth of huge evergreens and tangled underbrush. Hundreds of glaciers mantle the summits, hang high in cirques under rocky ridges, and stream down the mountain sides into the valleys. There are probably twice--possibly three times--as many glaciers in this one area as in all the other ranges in the United States put together. And hidden away among these twisted, convoluted mountains are enough lakes, meadows, waterfalls, alpine basins, and sweeping panoramas to keep the lover of the outdoors busy for a lifetime."

p. 140, "Administrative and Committee Reports"

The Ski Mountaineering course was reactivated for the first time in several years. Eighty persons signed up and there were six graduates. (Five years are allowed for completion of the course.) 1962-63 was a snow drought year.

Mountaineer Annual, 1965

This annual has an emphasis on the Mt Adams area. It contains information on the passage of the 1964 Wilderness Act, which created the Goat Rocks and Mt Adams Wilderness Areas in Washington. The annual doesn't contain any information directly relevant to ski mountaineering history.

Mountaineer Annual, 1966

This annual "is principally devoted to surveying the past, present, and future of several central conservation issues." Great stuff, but for the most part not directly relevant to this project.

p. 53, Zalesky, Philip, "Mountaineer Conservation: Contribution to Destiny" *

A comprehensive, fascinating account of Mountaineer involvement in conservation. I've only copied a portion of it (the article is over 40 pages long) and extracted relevant tidbits. On p. 61 the author mentions that the idea of the Cascade Crest trail came from Joseph T. Hazard. On p. 74 the author describes club involvement in Mt Rainier National Park. Initially, the club agitated to make the mountain more accessible, but after some roads and trails were built the club's position changed to protect the aesthetic qualities of the approaches. In the early 1950s, Roger Freeman, an administrative assistant to Washington Governor Langlie, became the focal point and promoter of a scheme to develop tourism in the park. Assisted by local politicians and the Washington Automobile Association, plans were laid for a funicular tramway on the mountain, a deluxe lodge, swimming pool, and golf course at Paradise. Hearings held by the WAA and Mountaineers in Seattle in August 1954 generated strong opposition and the plan was killed. The author notes that Arthur Winder has stated that this was a turning point in Northwest conservation, forcing a closer unity and cohesiveness among conservation groups. An indirect result of the hearings was to indicate the need for expanded ski facilities in the region. Individual Mountaineers and others investigated possibilities east of the park, leading to the development of Crystal Mountain.

p. 88, Hessey, Charles, "Glacier Peak from North Star Mountain" *

Fine photo of a skier on a level, wind-rippled snowfield, above a cloud sea.

p. 118, Hessey, Charles D., Jr., "Across the North Cascade Primitive Area" *

A description of several trips by the author to this area, working from the eastern Pasayten westward across Ross Lake and over Whatcom and Hannegan Passes. The author mentions, but not in detail, his late winter ski trips into the Cathedral Peak area. Commenting on the preservation of the Chilliwack River Valley thanks only to the difficulty of exploiting it, the author writes: "It is comforting that we have a wilderness system; it is disturbing to discover that the system's existence is based on a negative potential contribution to physical ease rather than on a positive potential offering to spiritual refreshment."

p. 123, Warth, John, "Our Backyard Wilderness: Alpine Lakes" *

A thorough description of the Alpine Lakes region, noting its uniqueness for the number and variety of lakes in the area and its proximity to Seattle. The article partitions the region into three sections: Snoqualmie Lakes (western), Chiwaukum Mountains and Mt Stuart (eastern), and Salmon La Sac (southern). The article describes attractions of each section and threats to the wilderness at the time of writing. The article concludes with a summary of proposals for protecting the area, dating from the 1930s to the present time. The article provides important background for the later establishment of the Alpine Lakes Wilderness.

Mountaineer Annual, 1967

p. 8, Pegues, Rodger W., "Mining the Wilderness"

Describes plans by Kennecott to create an open-pit copper mine "about a thousand feet below the summit of Plummer Mountain on the southwest face of Miner's Ridge. The pit would be around one-half mile in diameter and could be considerably larger." The article describes the mining plans in detail and discusses the likely consequences for the area. The author writes, "Image Lake, the ridge's crown jewel, lies tucked away in its own small bowl amidst the slopes and meadows of the ridge. When the air is still, Glacier Peak lies reflected on the lake's surface. Thousands of slides and color prints testify to the beauty of the scene."

p. 26, Hunich, Ken H. and Harold J. Wollack, "Dome Peak - 1966" *

Account of a week-long trip into the south end of the Ptarmigan Traverse area. The account is only interesting for its information on the state of the approach. By this date, Downey and Bachelor Creeks were the standard approach to the area. Also interesting is the fact that the party utilized a horse packer to haul supplies to Bachelor Creek.

p. 41, Stark, Margaret P., "Enchantment - What's in a Name" *

The definitive story of feature names in the Enchantment Lakes. The article says that an informal Enchantment Lakes Committee submitted proposals to the U.S. Board of Names in October 1966 for nomenclature in keeping with the enchantment theme, which was first proposed by A.H. Sylvester, supervisor of the Wenatchee National Forest. The author describes early trips with her husband and daughters into the area, in which names such as Tanglewood, Bifrost Arm, Naiad Lake, Excalibur Rock, Merlin's Tower, Viviane, Leprechaun, Sprite, Rune, Talisman, Lost World, Brisignamen, Valkerie, Brynhild, Aasgard, Valhalla, Gnome, Lorelie, Druid and more were bestowed.

The author describes going into the area on skis, including the winter approach route from Snow Creek and the attractions of being on the Lost World Plateau in winter. She mentions skiing out via the regular approach route, via Aasgard Pass to Colchuck Lake, and via a 7000 foot run from Cannon Mountain down the Rat Creek valley. The article also mentions that the name Trauma Rib was bestowed by ski tourers who holed up there for four days in a March snowstorm. The article includes a topographic map of "The Enchantment Lakes High Country" showing the proposed names.

p. 99, Slater, Loretta, "Then and Now"*

A look back at the first ten years of the Mountaineers, on the occasion of the club's 60th anniversary. The article includes reminiscences of several early members. The article records that the annual winter outing of the Tacoma Mountaineers to Mount Rainier began in 1913. The outings were 4 to 6 days, between Christmas and New Year. The article describes transportation and accommodation arrangements. In 1916 Paradise Inn was built and the outings after this were held at Paradise. The article explains the role of Thor Bisgaard in introducing Norman Engle and Harry Weer to skiing at the 1915 outing. At the end of the outing Bisgaard and Engle elected to ski from Paradise to the Ashford railroad station, a distance of about 16 miles. The article also includes information on the siting and construction of the Snoqualmie Lodge.

p. 119, Wollak, Harry, "The Great Nine Day Traverse (Watson-Bacon-Hagen-Blum)" *

Account of a nine-day traverse on foot from Watson Lakes to Mt Blum, climbing Watson, Bacon and Blum, but skipping Hagan due to weather delays. The party exited via Blum Creek and crossed the Baker River. Possibly the first traverse through this area, although the author was unsure of this. Background for later ski traverses.

p. 128, Meulemans, John, "Mt. Arriva Area" *

In Climbing Notes, this article notes the continuing highway construction up Early Winters Creek and over Washington Pass. The author, with his wife Irene and Joe and Joan Firey, climbed Mount Arriva, Mesahchie, Meulefire, and the west summit of Black, all first ascents. From Black, they followed the now-standard route back to Rainy Pass via Wing Lake and Heather Pass. Good context for the state of this area prior to the opening of the highway.

Mountaineer Annual, 1968

This volume includes a Mountaineer Handbook (pp. 8-142) that describes club goals and activities. Some of these sections are quite interesting, for example the "Climbers" section has a good history of the Climbers Group, probably written by Harvey Manning (judging by the content and style).

p. 46, "Climbers"

Mentions that Wolf Bauer joined the club in 1929 on a Boy Scout membership, awarded, he suspected, "because they wanted me to show them how to do the telemark". Also mentions (p. 53) that Jack Hossack designed and built the first ski lift at Meany Ski Hut.

p. 66, "Ski Tours" *

Describes the ski mountaineering course and its history. Mentions that during the first course led by Walt Little in 1940, 50 skiers took part in ascents of Mt Adams, Baker and Rainier to St Andrew's Rock. Field trips included snow camping and crevasse rescue. At the latter field trip, a skier would ski off a cornice in Edith Creek basin and his rope team would arrest his fall and attempt to rescue him. After World War II, John Hansen led the committee to revive the course. The interest in downhill skiing and new downhill facilities proved powerful competition, and the course was not offered again until 1962. David Brower's book Manual of Ski Mountaineering was adopted as a text. At the time of this article, the course includes lectures, field trips, and a variety of tours. Spring tours include glaciated peaks such as St Helens, Baker and Shuksan.

p. 77, "The Two Snoqualmie Lodges - Past and Present" *

This article provides more information on the new lodge than the old, so is of limited interest here. The article does mention that the trails to Melakwa Lake, Silver Peak, Snow Lake and other areas were built either by the Mountaineers or as a joint effort with the Forest Service. It says that the new lodge was located so that ski lifts and runs could be built, which the Forest Service would not permit at the site of the old lodge.

p. 84, "Happiness is Skiing at Meany - Or Where Else Can You Find a 2-1/2 Mile Long Rope Tow?" *

This article is light on history but heavy on the Meany Experience, describing the trip into the lodge behind the snowcat, lodge routines, and various ski runs and tours in the area. Some history of railroad access to the hut is provided. There is also some information on the Patrol Race. Teams were started at 10-minute intervals. The pass NE of Mirror Lake (high point of the route) is called Tinkham Pass. After Yakima Pass, the article mentions a "steep climb up to the Cedar River watershed" followed by "then down, over, up, around obstacles till finally, Meany hill in view, and the steep lane to the ski hut-average time 5-6 hours."

Mountaineer Annual, 1969

Since the North Cascades National Park was established in the past year (1968), this annual attempts to record aspects of that event. The Foreword mentions that the North Cascades Highway, "while accessible by four-wheel vehicle, is by no means fully open to the public yet."

p. 7, McConnell, Grant, "The Struggle for the North Cascades, A Personal Memoir" *

On the surface, this article doesn't seem to be about ski mountaineering, but it describes events that have had a huge impact on recreation in the Cascades. The account of the final struggle to create the North Cascades National Park, by the man who started it, is riveting.

The author describes the situation in the North Cascades in the mid-1950s: "Logging way up the Whitechuck and other valleys on public land. Pattern emerging: logging begins near the head of the wilderness valley, with road leading to the operations; therefore whole valley precluded from wilderness status; log the remainder at leisure. Smart, real smart."

About the USFS revised plan for a Glacier Peak Wilderness Area: "No starfish, no Rorschach blot. Almost good in fact. But concurrently the Eldorado Peaks Area (guess that means everything along the crest from Cascade Pass north and east) to be developed for mass use. (And they had said that once Glacier Peak settled, they would study this for other wilderness area. Never trust your government.)"

Finally, as support for the park idea grew: "By all that's holy, it's a movement now. More going on than any one person (save, maybe, Pat) can know. The myth of local unanimity against conservation is exploded. And the North Cascades are a national cause." The article should read by anyone who loves the North Cascades.

p. 18, Manning, Harvey, "Our Wild Irish Pat" *

A portrait of Patrick D. Goldsworthy, president of the North Cascades Conservation Council, who spearheaded the effort to create the park. His dedication to the cause earned him the nickname "Mr. North Cascades" among his peers, the press and public officials. The article includes a photo of Goldsworthy shaking hands with President Lyndon B. Johnson at the reception for the signing of the North Cascades Act.

p. 24, Contor, Roger J., "The Care and Feeding of North Cascades National Park" *

The author is the first superintendent of North Cascades National Park. He addresses management issues in the park, including climber registration, guide services, mountain rescue, zoning for different types of use, and non-consumptive usage practices. For the most part, an unburdensome and low-impact management style is described. He writes that potential ski area sites are being studied with the Forest Service, both within and adjacent to the park. He notes that any ski area would have to be near the North Cross-State Highway or one of the peripheral roads at the edge of the park. Tramway access is planned on Ruby Mountain. Plans for other tramways will likely await the outcome of the experience gained at Ruby Mountain.

p. 31, Evans, Brock, "Mountaineers as Mass Recreationists" *

The author, Northwest Representative for the Mountaineers, describes the irony he has felt being labeled an ultra-preservationist in public conservation hearings. He explains that the Mountaineers, with their network of ski lodges and many active skiing members, are probably the largest organization of skiers in the state. Yet they are labeled by ski area promoters as being "against everything." He tries to define a philosophy of mass recreation for the Mountaineers, one that does not reject development but that wants development to be carefully planned. He writes (surprisingly) that the club favors construction of a tramway up Ruby Mountain, as a preferable alternative to building a road. On the other hand, the club has opposed a proposed tramway into the Arctic Creek drainage in the Picket Range and earlier proposals for a tramway on the slopes of Mt Rainier.

p. 39, Firey Joan, Ed., "Mountaineering Areas of the North Cascades National Park" *

A fine overview of mountaineering opportunities in the following areas of the new park: Chilliwacks, Northern Pickets, Southern Pickets, Mt Shuksan area, Triumph and Despair, Colonial and Neve Glaciers, Eldorado and Inspiration Glacier, Cascade Pass, Park Creek Pass, Mt Arriva area. The article describes approach routes and interesting climbing objectives. Depot Creek is not described as an approach to Mt Spickard, suggesting that skis had probably not yet reached that area. The Mt Shuksan description refers to the Sulphide Glacier as an excellent spring ski tour, with the summit pyramid climbable on ice. The south side of Eldorado is also described as offering superb alpine skiing, even in winter. The description of the Mt Arriva area notes that the North Cascade highway is still several years from completion, but will make climbs in the area accessible in a weekend.

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